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Full text of "Mathematical And Physical Papers - Iii"

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SECOND METHOD.—The sun's light, reflected as before, was transmitted through a series of three or four Munich prisms placed one immediately after the other, and each nearly in the position of minimum deviation. It was then transmitted through a small lens in a board close to the last prism, and so allowed to enter the body to be examined, which was generally placed so that the first surface coincided, or nearly so, with the focus of the lens. The diameter of the lens was much smaller than the breadth or height of the prisms, so that the lens was completely filled with white light, the component parts of which however entered in different directions. Regarding the image of the sun in the focus of the small lens as a point, we may conceive the light incident on the body under examination as consisting of a series of cones, corresponding to different refrangibilities, the axes of which lay in a horizontal plane and intersected in the centre of the lens, the vertices being arranged in a horizontal line near the surface of the body examined.
THIRD METHOD.—The sun's light was reflected horizontally through a vertical slit, and received on the prisms, which were arranged as before, but placed at the distance of several feet from the slit. A large lens of rather long focus was placed immediately after the last prism, with its plane perpendicular, or nearly so, to the beam of light which had passed through the prisms, and with its centre about the middle of this beam. The body examined was placed at the distance of the image of the slit, or nearly so.
FOURTH METHOD.—Everything being arranged as in the third method, a board with a small lens of short focus was placed at the distance of the image of the slit, or between that and the image of the sun, which was a little nearer to the prisms, inasmuch as the focal length of the large lens commonly employed, though much smaller, was not incomparably smaller than the distance of the lens from the slit. A second slit was generally added immediately in front of the small lens. The body examined was placed at the focus of the small lens. The dispersed light was viewed from above, and analysed by a prism, being refracted sideways.
The object of these several arrangements will appear in the course of the paper. The prisms employed consisted, three of